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Non-expert summaryPhotoresists are an example of long chain molecules which dissolve in the presence of alkali. Dissolution involves the transport of hydoxyl ions (OH-) into the layer: they react with the photoresist and, depending on the temperature (above or below the upper critical solution temperature, UCST), it will either be transported by diffusion through the fluid boundary layer (above UCST) or form a gel phase (below the UCST), introducing an additional diffusion step in the reaction and mass transfer processes. A physico-chemical model of the process is presented here, applied to novolak resins, which can be applied to other polymeric systems including printing inks and dairy protein foulants. Experiments are performed with a spinning disk apparatus, which gives well defined mass transfer conditions.
Non-expert summaryExperimental study of the permeation of CWA simulants through different layers of porous building materials: brick, cinder block, wall board, wood. The breakthrough time is measured in a specially designed cell. Anisotropy of the permeation is observed for anisotropic material such as wood. Surface decontamination is tested and shown effective.
Hydrodynamic systems for assessing surface fouling, soil adherence and cleaning in laboratory installations
Non-expert summaryThis is a short review presenting and comparing five apparatuses that are used in laboratory scale investigations of cleaning: the parallel plate flow cell, the impinging jet, the radial flow cell, the rotating disk and fluid dynamic gauging. These systems are of particular relevance to the study of surface fouling, surface cleaning or adhesion on solid surfaces in laboratory environment. The key features of their hydrodynamics, as well as their practical advantages and drawbacks, are discussed. Examples of applications fields are also listed. A useful introduction to these devices.