Non-expert summaryBroad review of the fluid mechanics involved in the cleaning and decontamination of surfaces using liquid flows. Three main phases are reviewed: the contacting phase, which requires the liquid cleanser to reach the soil; the action phase, which studies the various physico-chemical effects of the cleanser on the soil; and the removal phase, where the cleanser transports the soil away from the surface through various phenomena.
Non-expert summaryModelling study of the decontamination of a porous material. An immiscible cleanser react with a contaminant, producing reactants which can be partially soluble in either phases. The diffusive-reactive transport problem is solved taking into account the moving boundary through asymptotic analysis and compared with numerical simulations. It is found that the partition coefficient of the product is more important in determining the removal rate than the reaction rate, as products of the reaction can prevent further reaction if they accumulate at the interface.
Non-expert summaryTheoretical study of the decontamination of a 2D porous material. The decontaminant is immiscible with the contaminant and neutralize it through interfacial reaction. Two scenarios are considered with either the contaminant filling partially the pore space, or fully. This reactive-diffusive problem is solved using a homogenisation technique that separates the local pore-scale dynamics from the macro-scale temporal evolution. The effect of the porous material is accounted for by the model.
Non-expert summaryExperimental study of the permeation of CWA simulants through different layers of porous building materials: brick, cinder block, wall board, wood. The breakthrough time is measured in a specially designed cell. Anisotropy of the permeation is observed for anisotropic material such as wood. Surface decontamination is tested and shown effective.
Non-expert summaryThis is a short review presenting and comparing five apparatuses that are used in laboratory scale investigations of cleaning: the parallel plate flow cell, the impinging jet, the radial flow cell, the rotating disk and fluid dynamic gauging. These systems are of particular relevance to the study of surface fouling, surface cleaning or adhesion on solid surfaces in laboratory environment. The key features of their hydrodynamics, as well as their practical advantages and drawbacks, are discussed. Examples of applications fields are also listed. A useful introduction to these devices.
Non-expert summaryThis is a relatively early experimental study of mass transfer of a sparingly soluble material from a flat, solid surface when it is exposed to a normally impinging turbulent jet of water. The nozzle Reynolds numbers ranged from 25,000 to 125,000. The surface was coated with trans-cinnamic acid, and thickness profiles were measure over time to determine the local rate of mass transfer. The mass transfer flux is used to calculate the local Sherwood number (dimensionless mass transfer coefficient). In the wall-jet region these were found to be independent of the nozzle to plate distance, and were correlated as Sh = 1.3*Re^0.84*(x/d)^- 1.27. The authors found reasonable agreement with published heat transfer data . The average Sherwood numbers in the impingement region were found to decrease rapidly beyond a transition zone of 6.5 diameters from the nozzle: mass transfer rates are thus weak beyond this zone.
Non-expert summaryThe prediction of flow behaviour in complex geometries representative of industrial and other practical systems often requires the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Two important pipe geometries are considered in this paper: a sudden and a gradual expansion or contraction. Steady state simulations using the STAR-CD package were used to predict the distribution of the mean shear stress imposed by a turbulent liquid flow from 1 inch to 2 inch cylindrical geometries (Reynolds number in the 1 inch pipe of 50,000), and the fluctuations in the shear stress. These calculated values are compared with estimates based on electrochemical mass transfer measurements. The data sets provide useful benchmarking results for other studies.
Non-expert summaryA simple, dynamic model, supported by experiments, is presented for the thinning (removal) of a viscous liquid film from the inside of the smooth interior surface of a long cylindrical tube. The model is based on the motion of the film generated by the shear stress imposed on it by the turbulent flow of air through the tube. The model gives estimates of the mean thickness of the film (an olive oil and a castor oil). The authors extend the investigation to include removal from roughened surfaces, modelling these as regularly spaced triangular cavities.
Non-expert summaryThis is an experimental and modelling study of the removal of a passive tracer contained in small, thin, viscous drops attached to a flat inclined substrate using the flow of a thin gravity-driven film. The drop cannot be detached either partially or completely from the surface by the mechanical forces exerted by the cleaning fluid on the drop. Convective mass transfer is established across the interface between the drop and the flowing liquid film and the (dilute) tracer diffuses into the film flow, which takes it away. The Peclet number, comparing the rate of mass transfer in the drop to the rate in the liquid film, is small (< 1) . Two models are presented: a simple empirical model based on film mass transfer coefficients; and a fuller theoretical model solving the quasi-steady two-dimensional advection–diffusion equation in the film, coupled with a time-dependent one-dimensional diffusion equation in the drop. A range of values of the Peclet number (0.01 to 1) is considered in the fuller model. Good agreement is observed between the experimental data and the models.