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Non-expert summaryWhen one liquid is pumped into a channel containing a second liquid, the behaviour depends on the properties of the two fluids and pressure driving force. This paper considers the stability of a flow of two miscible fluids in a horizontal channel. The flow dynamics are governed by the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations, with mass transfer between the two. An analysis of the flow in the linear regime delineates the presence of convective and absolute instabilities, and shows that vertical gradients of viscosity perturbations (caused by mixing) are the main destabilizing influence of the interface (in agreement with previous work). Previous work in the area is reviewed as well. Transient numerical simulations demonstrate the development of complex dynamics in the nonlinear regime, characterized by roll-up phenomena and intense convective mixing.
Non-expert summaryExperimental exploration of the exchange of two immiscible fluids in a wedge. Due to antagonist principal curvature, the more wetting fluid exchange with the less wetting fluid in the wedge, through a capillary instability. The instability develops in the form of fingers pinching into droplets. The less wetting fluid is thus displaced out of the wedge. Measurements are performed for varying geometry and viscosity. Discussion but no conclusion of the physical mechanisms are proposed in light of the more well known viscous fingering instability.