Non-expert summaryThe executive summary of this US EPA report states: "A large-scale aerosol release of a persistent, disease-causing biological agent can result in contamination of a wide area, and may require significant time and resources for recovery depending on the severity of adverse health effects on the exposed population(s). Many unknowns are associated with characterization and clearance sampling during response to a wide-area (including indoor, outdoor, and underground area) biological incident. The biological agent and its characteristics, the release mechanism, amount of contaminant released, and a plethora of environmental and meteorological factors are completely separate, yet interconnected processes that greatly influence the extent and level of contamination. Similarly, decisions related to the sampling strategy (i.e., sample medium, sampling area, spacing, etc.) will affect the cost, time, amount of waste generated, and personnel (i.e., resource demand) required to characterize and clear the contaminated area. The process of understanding how these elements influence one another and contribute to the overall problem is referred to as a systems approach. To what degree sampling and, more specifically, variations in the sampling strategy interact and contribute to overall resource demand, following a wide area biological incident, is still largely unknown. To date, there have been no attempts to model characterization sampling following a wide-area biological incident."
Non-expert summaryExperimental study of the permeation of CWA simulants through different layers of porous building materials: brick, cinder block, wall board, wood. The breakthrough time is measured in a specially designed cell. Anisotropy of the permeation is observed for anisotropic material such as wood. Surface decontamination is tested and shown effective.
Non-expert summaryThis is a review of social science studies on the social problems of environmental contamination and the social factors that affect cleanup processes and outcomes. It does not focus on technical aspects. An interdisciplinary literature review identified 97 articles and identified three themes: effects on cleanup worker health; public engagement and decision making; and societal benefits of cleaned-up sites. The need to link up various societal factors in making environmental cleanup policy is highlighted.