Non-expert summaryThis article presents an interdisciplinary roadmap showing the importance of cleaning and decontamination activities across a range of socio-economic sectors and in daily life. It captures the expertise and state-of-the art in terms of the fundamental understanding of the underpinning science behind cleaning and decontamination activities, as well as its practical implementation. The roadmap also highlights shortcomings and critical needs in the field at the scientific and practical levels, with some strategies to address them.
Non-expert summaryMany cleaning and decontamination operations employ a flow to detach or move a particle or foreign element (e.g. a piece of dust, baterium or a spore) from a surface. The presence of the element disturbs the flow near the wall. Knowledge of the flow field and the forces imposed on the element is useful for predicting or quantifying removal. This paper considers a simple shear flow of a Newtonian fluid over an axisymmetric protuberance (with uniform shape) on a plane wall. The full 3-D problem is formulated in terms of three scalar Fredholm integral equations of the first kind and is solved using a boundary-element method. The hydrodynamic force and torque exerted on the protuberance, and distribution of shear stresses, are calculated. There is good agreement with previous analytical computations for hemi-spherical and spherical shapes.
Non-expert summaryThe Navier-Stokes equations for the three-dimensional flow of a Newtonian fluid around a hemispherical bubble simultaneously sliding along a flat wall and growing are solved. The forces experienced by the bubble (lift, drag and added mass) are calculated for bubble Reynolds numbers greater than or equal to 0.01 and flow Reynolds numbers < 2000. The bubble does not change shape. The scenarios studied are (i) an immobile bubble in a linear shear flow; (ii) a bubble sliding along the wall in an otherwise stagnant fluid; and (iii) a bubble sliding in a linear shear flow. The results are presented in the form of dimensionless coefficients.
Non-expert summaryThis paper considers the management of heat exchanger units subject to regular cleaning and thus regular cleaning. A quantitative model is needed to support the decision of when to clean an exchanger, giving rise to repeated cycles of fouling and cleaning. The initial stages of fouling are strongly influenced by the effectiveness of the most recent cleaning step and, similarly, the effectiveness and rate of cleaning are determined by the extent and nature of the deposit layer present on the surface. Deposit aging is an important factor in this, as an aged deposit is usually more difficult to clean. Ageing therefore introduces an element of choice into fouling–cleaning operating cycles, between in situ “chemical” methods and ex situ “mechanical” methods, with associated differences in effectiveness, time, and cost. The cleaning scheduling problem is presented in terms of the choice of cleaning method, as well as the timing of cleaning. A process scale model is used, with the performance of units described by lumped parameter (i.e. not detailed) models. Dimensionless groups are obtained which capture the scaling involved. Case studies are used to illustrate the concepts.
Non-expert summaryPhotoresists are an example of long chain molecules which dissolve in the presence of alkali. Dissolution involves the transport of hydoxyl ions (OH-) into the layer: they react with the photoresist and, depending on the temperature (above or below the upper critical solution temperature, UCST), it will either be transported by diffusion through the fluid boundary layer (above UCST) or form a gel phase (below the UCST), introducing an additional diffusion step in the reaction and mass transfer processes. A physico-chemical model of the process is presented here, applied to novolak resins, which can be applied to other polymeric systems including printing inks and dairy protein foulants. Experiments are performed with a spinning disk apparatus, which gives well defined mass transfer conditions.
Non-expert summaryThe US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) has generated a number of management tools related to cleaning and decontamination. The EPA website states that "Management of waste from a radiological dispersal device (RDD) incident would likely constitute a large part of the remediation cost and effort. The U.S. EPA’s RDD Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. WEST supports decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident, and allows the user to evaluate various decontamination/demolition strategies to examine the impact of those strategies on waste generation. "
Non-expert summaryThe US Environment Protection Agency led a multi-agency investigation into the response to a release of a biological agent. The report summary states "The Bio-response Operational Testing and Evaluation (BOTE) Project was a multi-agency effort designed to operationally test and evaluate a response to a biological incident (release of Bacillus anthracis spores, the causative agent for anthrax) from initial public health and law enforcement response through environmental remediation. The BOTE Project consisted of two distinct phases, both using the same non-pathogenic simulant (or surrogate) for these spores. Phase 1 was a field-level decontamination assessment, and Phase 2 was an operational exercise involving key federal agencies responsible for the forensic investigation, public health assessment, and remediation following a biological incident. Phase 1 was designed to address site remediation after the release of a simulant within a facility in an operational setting, drawing upon the recent advances in both biological sampling and decontamination. "
Non-expert summaryThe Report Executive Summary states: "The Trade-off Tool for Sampling (TOTS) is a tool under development that aids planners, responders, and subject matter experts in developing defensible yet practicable sample collection plans following a biological contamination incident. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held a table-top exercise (TTX) with two separate groups of people. The purpose of the TTX was to gather critical end-user feedback on the utility of the tool for future revisions of TOTS and to increase collective (responders, planners, and researchers) understanding of challenges during the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) development for biological incidents, all for the goal of strengthening EPA’s capabilities in this area. The first TTX session was held at the 2019 EPA International Decontamination Conference in Norfolk, Virginia (November 18, 2019), and the second TTX session was held at the EPA On-scene Coordinator (OSC) Academy in Chicago, Illinois (February 26, 2020). The ultimate goal is to provide EPA planners and operational personnel (e.g., on-scene coordinators) the tools and resources necessary to effectively and efficiently plan and execute EPA’s response obligations."
Non-expert summaryThe executive summary of this US EPA report states: "A large-scale aerosol release of a persistent, disease-causing biological agent can result in contamination of a wide area, and may require significant time and resources for recovery depending on the severity of adverse health effects on the exposed population(s). Many unknowns are associated with characterization and clearance sampling during response to a wide-area (including indoor, outdoor, and underground area) biological incident. The biological agent and its characteristics, the release mechanism, amount of contaminant released, and a plethora of environmental and meteorological factors are completely separate, yet interconnected processes that greatly influence the extent and level of contamination. Similarly, decisions related to the sampling strategy (i.e., sample medium, sampling area, spacing, etc.) will affect the cost, time, amount of waste generated, and personnel (i.e., resource demand) required to characterize and clear the contaminated area. The process of understanding how these elements influence one another and contribute to the overall problem is referred to as a systems approach. To what degree sampling and, more specifically, variations in the sampling strategy interact and contribute to overall resource demand, following a wide area biological incident, is still largely unknown. To date, there have been no attempts to model characterization sampling following a wide-area biological incident."
Non-expert summaryThis book chapter is a review of biofilm dynamics, modelling and simulation. The modeling of biochemical processes in biofilms is more complex compared to those in suspended biomass due to the existence of substrate gradients. The review traces the development of modelling approaches from 1-D mass transfer and removal mechanisms to 2D and 3D descriptions including more levels of physical insight.
Non-expert summaryThe removal of biofilms by sloughing is a natural phenomenon in biofilm dynamics. Three hypothetical mechanisms of detachment were incorporated into a 3D model of biofilm development. The model integrated processes of substrate utilization, substrate diffusion, growth, cell advection, and detachment in a cellular automata framework. The three detachment mechanisms analyzed represented various physical and biological influences hypothesized to affect biofilm detachment; fluid shear removing protruding material; removal linked to local nutrient availability; and erosion. The detachment mechanisms demonstrated diverse behaviors with respect to the four analysis criteria. The results show that detachment is a critical determinant of biofilm structure and of the dynamics of biofilm accumulation and loss.
Non-expert summaryThe structure of many biofilms results in a surface layer which does not detach readily and a growing layer that detaches (sloughs) off more readily. The authors present a general method for describing biomass detachment in a multidimensional biofilm modelling framework. Biomass losses from processes acting on the entire surface of the biofilm, such as erosion, are modelled, and discrete detachment events, i.e. sloughing, are implicitly derived from the simulations. This methodology for biomass detachment was integrated with multidimensional (2D and 3D) particle-based multispecies biofilm models by using the level set method. Application of the method is demonstrated by looking at the trends in biofilm structure and activity over time in two case studies: I - a simple model considering uniform biomass; II - a model discriminating biomass composition in heterotrophic active mass, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and inert mass.