Non-expert summaryThis paper considers the management of heat exchanger units subject to regular cleaning and thus regular cleaning. A quantitative model is needed to support the decision of when to clean an exchanger, giving rise to repeated cycles of fouling and cleaning. The initial stages of fouling are strongly influenced by the effectiveness of the most recent cleaning step and, similarly, the effectiveness and rate of cleaning are determined by the extent and nature of the deposit layer present on the surface. Deposit aging is an important factor in this, as an aged deposit is usually more difficult to clean. Ageing therefore introduces an element of choice into fouling–cleaning operating cycles, between in situ “chemical” methods and ex situ “mechanical” methods, with associated differences in effectiveness, time, and cost. The cleaning scheduling problem is presented in terms of the choice of cleaning method, as well as the timing of cleaning. A process scale model is used, with the performance of units described by lumped parameter (i.e. not detailed) models. Dimensionless groups are obtained which capture the scaling involved. Case studies are used to illustrate the concepts.
Non-expert summaryThe authors consider the steady laminar advective transport of a diffusive component released at the base of a narrow three-dimensional longitudinal open channel with non-absorbing side walls and rectangular or truncated-wedge-shaped cross-sections: the findings are relevant to heat and mass transfer applications in confined U-shaped or V-shaped channels (or trenches) such as might arise in the decontamination and cleaning of narrow gaps, crevices and boundary features on walls or other surfaces, and well as transport processes in chemical or biological microfluidic devices. The fluid flows along the channel in the laminar regime and there is no flux or slip on the side walls. Numerical simulations are conducted for various duct shapes and the rate of mass transfer from the base is calculated: this is used to evaluate the dimensionless mass transfer coefficient, the Sherwood number. The results for 3-D (constant cross section, long in the direction of flow) are compared favourably with results for a simplified, 2-D, calculation.
Non-expert summaryWhen one liquid is pumped into a channel containing a second liquid, the behaviour depends on the properties of the two fluids and pressure driving force. This paper considers the stability of a flow of two miscible fluids in a horizontal channel. The flow dynamics are governed by the continuity and Navier–Stokes equations, with mass transfer between the two. An analysis of the flow in the linear regime delineates the presence of convective and absolute instabilities, and shows that vertical gradients of viscosity perturbations (caused by mixing) are the main destabilizing influence of the interface (in agreement with previous work). Previous work in the area is reviewed as well. Transient numerical simulations demonstrate the development of complex dynamics in the nonlinear regime, characterized by roll-up phenomena and intense convective mixing.
Non-expert summaryThis modelling study considers what happens after a droplet is set into motion by the action of an impose shear flow. Inertial effects and contact-angle hysteresis are both considered. A number of flow regimes are investigated, including steadily moving drops, partial and entire droplet entrainment. The critical conditions (capillary number) for the onset of entrainment are determined for pinned as well as for moving drops. The approach to breakup is then investigated in detail, including the growth of a ligament on a drop, and the reduction of the radius of a pinching neck. A model based on an energy argument is proposed for the rate of elongation of ligaments. The paper concludes with an investigation of detachment of a hydrophobic droplet from a solid wall.
Non-expert summaryThis is an experimental study of removal of dust particles from a hydrophobic surface by a rolling/sliding water droplet. The effect of surface inclination angle on droplet dynamics and dust removal is analyses and compared with a model. Droplet rolling dominates over sliding. Removal is mainly due to the droplet liquid coating the particles as it passes over the particle, and the removal efficiency is determined by the inclination of the surface.
Non-expert summaryThe use of pressurised air to displace a viscoplastic liquid from a complex duct geometry is simulated using detailed numerical modelling. The transient displacement of Newtonian and viscoplastic liquids by air in cylindrical tubes of finite length with a concentric expansion followed by a contraction in their cross section is considered. The change in diameter is not sudden. Various expansion and contraction ratios are studied. Papanastasiou's formula is employed to regularize the discontinuous Bingham model. Results are presented for a range of fluid and geometrical parameters, and some cases are compared to analytical results.
Non-expert summaryModelling study of the decontamination of a porous material. An immiscible cleanser react with a contaminant, producing reactants which can be partially soluble in either phases. The diffusive-reactive transport problem is solved taking into account the moving boundary through asymptotic analysis and compared with numerical simulations. It is found that the partition coefficient of the product is more important in determining the removal rate than the reaction rate, as products of the reaction can prevent further reaction if they accumulate at the interface.
Non-expert summaryTheoretical study of the decontamination of a 2D porous material. The decontaminant is immiscible with the contaminant and neutralize it through interfacial reaction. Two scenarios are considered with either the contaminant filling partially the pore space, or fully. This reactive-diffusive problem is solved using a homogenisation technique that separates the local pore-scale dynamics from the macro-scale temporal evolution. The effect of the porous material is accounted for by the model.
Non-expert summaryImpinging liquid jets are widely used to clean unwanted soil layers from the walls of structures and vessels. This paper investigates what is observed when a coherent, turbulent, water jet impinges normally on a thin layer of an immiscible viscoplastic material. Removal involves the growth of a cleared area (which is circular for a jet impinging normally) bounded by a berm of displaced material. Previously Glover et al. [2016, J. Food Eng.. 178, 95-109] presented a semi-empirical model relating the rate of removal (location of the berm) to the momentum flow rate in the liquid film. The authors present a first-order model for cleaning thin layers of these materials based on the rate of viscous dissipation in a shallow wedge of material at the cleaning front. This yields a result of the form of the Glover et al. model, with expressions linking the kinetic parameters to measurable quantities including the rheology of the soil. The fully coupled problem is not solved: the wedge angle and residual layer thickness need to be specified and in this work they were obtained by fitting to the data. New and existing experimental results are compared with the model for three soft solids immiscible with water: two petroleum jellies and a soft paraffin, which exhibited Bingham plastic behaviour and creep, for jet Reynolds numbers between 10,000-37,000. The ratio of average film depth and layer thickness was in the range 0.1-1.5.
Non-expert summaryThis is a relatively early experimental study of mass transfer of a sparingly soluble material from a flat, solid surface when it is exposed to a normally impinging turbulent jet of water. The nozzle Reynolds numbers ranged from 25,000 to 125,000. The surface was coated with trans-cinnamic acid, and thickness profiles were measure over time to determine the local rate of mass transfer. The mass transfer flux is used to calculate the local Sherwood number (dimensionless mass transfer coefficient). In the wall-jet region these were found to be independent of the nozzle to plate distance, and were correlated as Sh = 1.3*Re^0.84*(x/d)^- 1.27. The authors found reasonable agreement with published heat transfer data . The average Sherwood numbers in the impingement region were found to decrease rapidly beyond a transition zone of 6.5 diameters from the nozzle: mass transfer rates are thus weak beyond this zone.
Non-expert summaryA simple, dynamic model, supported by experiments, is presented for the thinning (removal) of a viscous liquid film from the inside of the smooth interior surface of a long cylindrical tube. The model is based on the motion of the film generated by the shear stress imposed on it by the turbulent flow of air through the tube. The model gives estimates of the mean thickness of the film (an olive oil and a castor oil). The authors extend the investigation to include removal from roughened surfaces, modelling these as regularly spaced triangular cavities.
Non-expert summaryThis is an experimental and modelling study of the removal of a passive tracer contained in small, thin, viscous drops attached to a flat inclined substrate using the flow of a thin gravity-driven film. The drop cannot be detached either partially or completely from the surface by the mechanical forces exerted by the cleaning fluid on the drop. Convective mass transfer is established across the interface between the drop and the flowing liquid film and the (dilute) tracer diffuses into the film flow, which takes it away. The Peclet number, comparing the rate of mass transfer in the drop to the rate in the liquid film, is small (< 1) . Two models are presented: a simple empirical model based on film mass transfer coefficients; and a fuller theoretical model solving the quasi-steady two-dimensional advection–diffusion equation in the film, coupled with a time-dependent one-dimensional diffusion equation in the drop. A range of values of the Peclet number (0.01 to 1) is considered in the fuller model. Good agreement is observed between the experimental data and the models.